History of Organ Transplantation

1963-----------K. Reemtsma., Tulane University Medical Center in New Orleans transplanted chimpanzee kidneys into six patients with advanced kidney failure.

1968-----------Dr. Chang,St. Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, Australia-first early heart transplant.

1983-----------Formation of the National Transplant Assistance Fund (NTAF)--Offers modest assistance grants and counsels patients regarding cost and location of transplant centers.

1984-----------Baby Fae-receives a baboon heart because its own heart had a lethal defect.

1984-----------National Organ Transplant Act of 1984--helps with organization of transplant services, supply and procuring of services, and financing transplant procedures and immunosuppressive drug therapy. Forbids sale of human organs.

1980-85-------Introduction of cyclosporin-immunosuppressant drug.

1987-----------Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)publishes regulations for Medicare coverage of heart transplants.

1989------------United Network Organ Sharing (UNOS)-in existence.

1989------------Transplant Act of 1989-allows transplants from living genetically related donors.

1990's----------International Forum for Transplant Ethics--in existence.

1992------------35 year old man receives a baboon liver at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

1993-------------Largest baboon colony-San Antonio Biomedical Research.

1994-------------National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine establishes committee to examine zenotransplantation.

1995-------------University of Massachusetts and Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers successfully grow cartilage in the shape of a human ear on the back of a mouse, using a polymer.

1996--------------Nearly 50,000 donor organs needed, only approximately 20,000 organ transplants completed.

1996--------------Cross-species (zenotransplantation) becomes successful.

1996--------------Biotechnological companies, such as Nextran and Imutran develop pig organs for transplantation.

1996------------Pittsburgh Tissue Engineering Initiative fosters commercialization of tissue engineering.


Problem

Significance

Affect on People's Lives

Economic Impact

Transplant History

Critical Technology

Impact of Technology

Limits & Benefits

Proposals

References

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